Clinical Psychology and Cardiovascular Disease: An Up-to-Date Clinical Practice Review for Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety and Depression

Angelo Compare1, *, Elena Germani2, Riccardo Proietti3, David Janeway4
1 Clinical Psychology and Rehabilitation Psychology Department University of Bergamo, Italy
2 Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milano, Italy
3 Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratory, Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milano, Italy
4 Department of Psychiatry, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York

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© Compare et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the University of Bergamo-P.le S. Agostino, 2 - 24129 Bergamo; Tel: +39 328 3616304; Fax: +39 0352052916; E-mail:


The aim of the present review is underline the association between cardiac diseases and anxiety and depression. In the first part of the article, there is a description of anxiety and depression from the definitions of DSM-IV TR. In the second part, the authors present the available tests and questionnaires to assess depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the last part of the review different types of interventions are reported and compared; available interventions are pharmacological or psychological treatments.

Keywords: Anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, psychological risk factors, psychological treatments, psychocardiology, heart disease.