Digital Dependence in Organizations: Impacts on the Physical and Mental Health of Employees

Lucio Lage Gonçalves1, *, Antonio Egidio Nardi1, Anna Lucia Spear King1
1 Av. Jornalista Ricardo Marinho, 150, ap. 1404 - Barra da Tijuca - Rio de Janeiro - Brasil – CEP 22631 350, Brazil

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© 2023 Gonçalves et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Av. Jornalista Ricardo Marinho, 150, ap. 1404 - Barra da Tijuca - Rio de Janeiro - Brasil – CEP 22631 350, Brazil; Tel: 21993721516; E-mail:


Digital Dependence is a person's persistent inability to regulate digital devices on which they have become highly dependent. Internet dependence has been described since the mid-1990s, and studies on this topic have intensified since 2010. This type of individual dependence has received considerable published literature, but it is new in the collective setting of organizations, offering the hypothesis that it can also be collective, given the impacts it can provide. Research has evolved geographically from three countries to 17 since the beginning of the last decade, with 7 new scales for digital dependence. There were 13 new revalidations of the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q), with an increase from 1,000 to 13,000 volunteers. Geographical evolution and an increase in the number of scales and volunteers and their different profiles were described. New approaches reinforce evolution and its impacts on human behavior. This study provides historical insight into Digital Dependence and opens new prospects for research on the differences between nations and people, sexes, professionals, and the need for further research in organizations.

Keywords: Digital dependence, Digital addiction, Internet dependence, Digital impacts, Digital human behavior, Digital addiction in organizations, Digital addiction of employees.