Depression among Older Adults in Indonesia: Prevalence, Role of Chronic Conditions and Other Associated Factors

Yvonne Suzy Handajani1, *, Elisabeth Schröder-Butterfill2, Eef Hogervorst3, Yuda Turana1, Antoninus Hengky4
1 School of Medicine and Health Science, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
2 University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
3 School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
4 Center of Health Research, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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© 2022 Handajani et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Medicine and Health Science, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia., Jl.Pluit Raya, No.2, Jakarta 14440, Indonesia; Tel: +62-8161353738; E-mail:



Depression is one of the most common illnesses worldwide, with a prevalence of 5.7% among older adults aged over 60. Depression is a severe health condition that can significantly affect the quality of life.


The objective of this study is to investigate the determinant factors of depression among older adults in Indonesia.


Data of 4236 adults of 60 years old and over were taken from the fifth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS-5). Sociodemographic and multiple health-related variables collected through interviews and measurements were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate depression and its associated factors.


The prevalence of depression assessed using ten questions from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10) was 16.3%. Significant associated factors for depression were moderate and low subjective economic status, living in Java or other regions outside Sumatra and Java, no life satisfaction, self-perceived as having poor health, having dependency (IADL scores), and experienced falls and insomnia. Among chronic conditions, stroke, arthritis, and hearing impairment were also more common in depressed older adults.


Predictors of depression identified in this study may be used to help prevent and improve depression in Indonesian older adults, especially those who live on Java. Improvement in healthcare, especially in the prevention and rehabilitation of stroke, arthritis, possible frailty (falls and dependency), hearing impairment, and insomnia, concurrent with early detection of depression in these chronic conditions, may help create a better quality of life among Indonesian older adults.

Keywords: Prevalence, Depression, Older adults, Associated factors, Chronic condition, Health condition.