RESEARCH ARTICLE


Trends in Insomnia, Burnout, and Functional Impairment among Health Care Providers over the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic



Ahmed Yassin1, *, Abdel-Hameed Al-Mistarehi2, Aref A. Qarqash3, Ola Soudah4, Reema A. Karasneh4, Sayer Al-Azzam5, Aws G. Khasawneh6, Khalid El-Salem1, Khalid A. Kheirallah2, Basheer Y. Khassawneh7
1 Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
2 Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
3 Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
4 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
5 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
6 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
7 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Al Yassin et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology P.O.Box: (3030) Irbid (22110) Jordan; E-mail: amyassin@just.edu.jo


Abstract

Background:

COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the psychological well-being and quality of life of health care providers (HCPs).

Objectives:

This study assessed the trends in prevalence and predictors of insomnia, burnout, and functional impairment among HCPs over the first year of the pandemic.

Methods:

An online survey was conducted one month after the pandemic’s onset (onset group) and a year later (one-year group). The demographic features of participants were collected. Insomnia, burnout, and functional impairment were assessed using Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Mini-Z survey, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), respectively.

Results:

The onset group included 211 HCPs (mean (SD) age 34.7 (9.3) years and 73% men), while 212 HCPs participated in the one-year survey (mean (SD) age 35.9 (10.5) years and 69% men). High prevalence estimates were found in both onset and one-year groups of symptoms of insomnia (52% vs. 49%), of diagnosis of clinical insomnia (15% vs. 18%), with a high mean ISI score (8.4 vs. 8.7), but with no significant difference between the onset and one-year groups. Risk factors for clinical insomnia included age in both groups, lower income and contact level with COVID-19 patients/samples in the onset group, and lower Mini-Z scores and higher SDS scores in the one-year group. Approximately one-third of respondents reported at least one or more burnout symptoms, with a higher percentage in the one-year group (35.4%) than in the onset group (24.2%) (p=0.012). Younger age, lower monthly income, and higher ISI and SDS scores were risk factors for burnout in both groups. Greater perceived changes in social life were associated with burnout in the onset group. In contrast, higher weekly working hours, worse participants’ evaluation of their institution’s preparation, and more changes in workload were risk factors for burnout in the one-year group. The SDS score and its subscales scores were higher in the one-year group than in the onset group. Changes in workload and social life predicted higher SDS scores among both groups. Living with older people predicted higher SDS scores among the onset group, while contact level and estimated number of COVID-19 patients that participants engaged in during caring predicted higher SDS scores among the one-year group. ISI scores were significantly correlated with the Mini-Z scores and SDS scores in both groups, while the Mini-Z and SDS scores were significantly correlated only in the one-year group.

Conclusion:

This study demonstrated high rates of insomnia, burnout, and functional impairment among HCPs during the pandemic. It reveals a significant rise in job burnout and functional impairment of HCPs overtime during the pandemic. Furthermore, high-risk subgroups are also highlighted for whom comprehensive psychosocial and occupational interventions might be warranted.

Keywords: COVID-19, Health care providers, Insomnia, Burnout, Functional impairment, One-year.