A Comprehensive Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practicalities Related to Doping Agents use among Jordanians
Mohanad Odeh1, Haneen M. Tailakh2, Abdel Qader F. Al Bawab2, Nour A. Elsahoryi3, Karem H. Alzoubi4, 5, *
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2022
E-location ID: e174501792202280
Publisher ID: e174501792202280
Article History:Received Date: 3/7/2021
Revision Received Date: 18/11/2021
Acceptance Date: 14/12/2021
Electronic publication date: 25/03/2022
Collection year: 2022
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
People perform sports for better health and wellbeing. However, the use of doping agents is emerging among young adults. This study investigated aspects related to doping agents.
A reliable self-administered questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha =0.72, Pearson's r = 0.89) was used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practicalities related to the use of doping agents. Results for pharmacists as health care providers (HCP, n=550) were compared with non-healthcare providers (Non-HCP, n=319).
Among pharmacists, 82.9% knew the definition of doping agents vs. 72.4% of non-HCP (P<0.001). However, 36.7% of pharmacists vs. 39.6% of non-HCP incorrectly classified doping agents (P=0.02). The majority of responders (89.8%) supported having an anti-doping authority, yet, only 15% were aware of the anti-doping organizations. The majority of responders (83%) did not receive an official education related to doping agents. Enhancing physical performance was perceived as a leading driver (82.1%) to use doping agents. More than 90% of responders supported awareness in the community. The perceived best tool for awareness was social media and TV sites, as suggested by pharmacists (95.0%) and non-HCP (92.1%, P=0.312). A total of 6.1% had ever used doping agents (3.6% pharmacist vs. 9.8% non-HCP, P<0.001). Almost half of the users utilized a diet or medication to counteract the side effects of doping agents. Within pharmacists, males received more requests to provide doping agents (41.9%) compared with females (23.8%, P<0.001).
It is crucial to enhance professional and legal knowledge and public awareness about doping agents, not only for non-HCP but also for HCPs. Applying more restrictions on doping agents is strongly recommended.