A Comprehensive Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practicalities Related to Doping Agents use among Jordanians

Mohanad Odeh1
, Haneen M. Tailakh2, Abdel Qader F. Al Bawab2
, Nour A. Elsahoryi3
, Karem H. Alzoubi4, 5, *

1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
2 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
3 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of Petra, Amman, Jordan
4 Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacotherapeutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE
5 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Odeh et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; E-mail:



People perform sports for better health and wellbeing. However, the use of doping agents is emerging among young adults. This study investigated aspects related to doping agents.


A reliable self-administered questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha =0.72, Pearson's r = 0.89) was used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practicalities related to the use of doping agents. Results for pharmacists as health care providers (HCP, n=550) were compared with non-healthcare providers (Non-HCP, n=319).


Among pharmacists, 82.9% knew the definition of doping agents vs. 72.4% of non-HCP (P<0.001). However, 36.7% of pharmacists vs. 39.6% of non-HCP incorrectly classified doping agents (P=0.02). The majority of responders (89.8%) supported having an anti-doping authority, yet, only 15% were aware of the anti-doping organizations. The majority of responders (83%) did not receive an official education related to doping agents. Enhancing physical performance was perceived as a leading driver (82.1%) to use doping agents. More than 90% of responders supported awareness in the community. The perceived best tool for awareness was social media and TV sites, as suggested by pharmacists (95.0%) and non-HCP (92.1%, P=0.312). A total of 6.1% had ever used doping agents (3.6% pharmacist vs. 9.8% non-HCP, P<0.001). Almost half of the users utilized a diet or medication to counteract the side effects of doping agents. Within pharmacists, males received more requests to provide doping agents (41.9%) compared with females (23.8%, P<0.001).


It is crucial to enhance professional and legal knowledge and public awareness about doping agents, not only for non-HCP but also for HCPs. Applying more restrictions on doping agents is strongly recommended.

Keywords: Doping Agents, Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), Jordan.