RESEARCH ARTICLE


IL-10 (-819C/T), TNFA (-30G/A) and ENOS (-786T/C) Polymorphisms Modulating the Outcome Related to Mental Disorders in Crack Addicted Users



Ana Caroline Melo dos Santos1, *
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, Barbara Rayssa Correia dos Santos1
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, Bruna Brandão dos Santos1
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, Edilson Leite de Moura1
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, Abel Barbosa Lira Neto1
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, Aline Cristine Pereira e Silva2
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, Karol Fireman de Farias3
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, Verônica de Medeiros Alves4
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, Antônio Egídio Nardi5
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, Elaine Virgínia Martins de Souza Figueiredo6
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1 Program in Health Sciences, Molecular Biology and Gene Expression Laboratory, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, Brazil
2 Laboratory of Molecular Chronobiology, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, Brazil
3 Program in Nursing, Molecular Biology and Gene Expression Laboratory, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, Brazil
4 Department of Nursing, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, Brazil
5 Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil
6 Program in Health Sciences, Molecular Biology and Gene Expression Laboratory, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, Brazil


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 dos Santos et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Molecular Biology and Gene Expression Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Alagoas Brazil; E-mail: anamelodossantos1105@gmail.com


Abstract

Background:

Cocaine/crack use affects immune system molecules and development of mental disorders has been identified.

Objective:

To investigate the relationship of polymorphisms in the TNFA (-308G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T) and ENOS (-786T/C) genes with mental disorders in cocaine and crack users.

Methods:

A case-control study was carried out, which included 107 cocaine and crack users and 115 controls who never used healthy cocaine and crack. The SNPs in the TNFA (-308G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T) and ENOS (-786T/C) genes were genotyped by real time PCR.

Results:

As for the individuals included in this study, the average age of 31.4 years (± 8.59). We identified that the G/A genotype to TNFA (-308) (OR = 0.24; p = 0.03) and the A allele (OR = 0.30; p = 0.03) were associated with reduced risk for dysthymic disorder. The T allele of the IL-10 (-819) polymorphism was associated with decreased risk of developing panic disorder (OR = 0.44; p = 0.01), while the C allele was correlated with an increased risk for alcohol dependence (OR = 1.97; p = 0.04), alcohol abuse (OR = 1.81; p = 0.04) and psychotic syndrome (OR = 2.23; p = 0.01). C/C genotype was correlated with increased chances of developing current psychotic syndrome (OR = 4.23; p = 0.01).

Conclusion:

Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms promote susceptibility or promote protection for clinical phenotypes of psychiatric comorbidities in cocaine and crack users and be considered as good prognostic markers.

Keywords: Genetic polymorphism, Cocaine, Crack, Mental disorders, Central nervous system, Chronic depressive symptoms.