IL-10 (-819C/T), TNFA (-30G/A) and ENOS (-786T/C) Polymorphisms Modulating the Outcome Related to Mental Disorders in Crack Addicted Users

Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health 08 Feb 2022 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/17450179-v18-e2201140



Cocaine/crack use affects immune system molecules and development of mental disorders has been identified.


To investigate the relationship of polymorphisms in the TNFA (-308G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T) and ENOS (-786T/C) genes with mental disorders in cocaine and crack users.


A case-control study was carried out, which included 107 cocaine and crack users and 115 controls who never used healthy cocaine and crack. The SNPs in the TNFA (-308G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T) and ENOS (-786T/C) genes were genotyped by real time PCR.


As for the individuals included in this study, the average age of 31.4 years (± 8.59). We identified that the G/A genotype to TNFA (-308) (OR = 0.24; p = 0.03) and the A allele (OR = 0.30; p = 0.03) were associated with reduced risk for dysthymic disorder. The T allele of the IL-10 (-819) polymorphism was associated with decreased risk of developing panic disorder (OR = 0.44; p = 0.01), while the C allele was correlated with an increased risk for alcohol dependence (OR = 1.97; p = 0.04), alcohol abuse (OR = 1.81; p = 0.04) and psychotic syndrome (OR = 2.23; p = 0.01). C/C genotype was correlated with increased chances of developing current psychotic syndrome (OR = 4.23; p = 0.01).


Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms promote susceptibility or promote protection for clinical phenotypes of psychiatric comorbidities in cocaine and crack users and be considered as good prognostic markers.

Keywords: Genetic polymorphism, Cocaine, Crack, Mental disorders, Central nervous system, Chronic depressive symptoms.
Fulltext HTML PDF