SYSTEMATIC REVIEW


Strategies for Psychiatric Rehabilitation and their Cognitive Outcomes in Schizophrenia: Review of Last Five-year Studies



Antonio Rampino1, 2, *, Rosa M. Falcone1, Arianna Giannuzzi1, Rita Masellis1, Linda A. Antonucci1, 3, Silvia Torretta1
1 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience, and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy
2 Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy
3 Department of Education, Psychology and Communication, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70122 Bari, Italy


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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Rampino et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of BasicMal Science, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy; E-mail: antonio.rampino@uniba.it


Abstract

Background:

Cognitive deficits are core features of Schizophrenia, showing poor response to antipsychotic treatment, therefore non-pharmacological rehabilitative approaches to such a symptom domain need to be identified. However, since not all patients with Schizophrenia exhibit the same cognitive impairment profile, individualized rehabilitative approaches should be set up.

Objectives:

We explored the last five-year literature addressing the issue of cognitive dysfunction response to rehabilitative methodologies in Schizophrenia to identify possible predictors of response and individualized strategies to treat such a dysfunction.

Conclusion:

A total of 76 studies were reviewed. Possible predictors of cognitive rehabilitation outcome were identified among patient-specific and approach-specific variables and a general overview of rehabilitative strategies used in the last five years has been depicted. Studies suggest the existence of multifaced and multi-domain variables that could significantly predict pro-cognitive effects of cognitive rehabilitation, which could also be useful for identifying individual-specific rehabilitation trajectories over time.

An individualized rehabilitative approach to cognitive impairment in Schizophrenia is possible if taking into account both patient and approach specific predictors of outcomes.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Cognition, Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Cognitive Remediation, Outcomes, Individualized intervention.