RESEARCH ARTICLE


Association between Estimated Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Depression among Middle-income Country Adults: Evidence from National Health Survey



Eduardo Lattari1, Andreza Jesus Costa Pascouto1, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho Oliveira2, Livia Soares Silva1, 3, Aldair José Oliveira1, 3, Sérgio Machado4, 5, *, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhao Neto6
1 Salgado de Oliveira University, Postgraduate Program in Physical Activity Sciences (PGCAF), Niterói, RJ, Brazil
2 Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Physical Activity, Health, and Performance Research Laboratory, Department of Physical; Education and Sports, Seropédica, Brazil
3 Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Laboratory of Social Dimensions Applied to Physical Activity and Sport (LABSAFE), Department of Physical; Education and Sports, Seropédica, Brazil
4 Department of Sports Methods and Techniques, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
5 Laboratory of Physical Activity Neuroscience, Neurodiversity Institute, Queimados-RJ, Brazil
6 International Clinical Research Centre (ICRC), St Anne's University Hospital Brno (FNUSA), Brno-stred, Czech Republic.


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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Lattari et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Sports Methods and Techniques, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil; E-mail: secm80@gmail.com


Abstract

Objective:

This study assessed the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and depression in adults.

Methods:

A total of 52,611 individuals aged between 18-59 years old were evaluated for symptoms of depression and CRF. The presence of depressive symptoms was self-report through the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the CRF was predicted from a non-exercise equation. The association between CRF and the presence of depression was determined by crude and multivariable-adjusted logistic regressions.

Results:

The associations were identified between symptoms of depression and CRF in both unadjusted and adjusted models. After adjusting for age categories, sex, body mass index categories, educational level, marital status, smoking, and alcohol use, the individuals with moderate CRF had 18% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.82, CI 95%: 0.71 – 0.95) compared to individuals with low CRF.

Conclusion:

Depressive symptoms are inversely related to CRF levels in adults.

Keywords: Fitness, Depression, Regression, Epidemiology, Cardiometabolic, Demographic.