Cognitive Dysfunction in Asian Patients with Depression (CogDAD): A Cross-Sectional Study

Srisurapanont Manit1, *, Mok Yee Ming2, Yang Yen Kuang3, Chan Herng-Nieng4, Della Constantine D5, Zainal, Nor Zuraida6, Jambunathan Stephen7, Amir Nurmiati7, Kalita Pranab8
1 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
2 Institute of Mental Health, View, Buangkok Green Medical Park, Buangkok, Singapore
3 Department of Psychiatry, National Cheng Kung University, Cheng Kung National University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan,
4 Department of Psychiatry, Singapore General Hospital, Academia, Singapore
5 College of Medicine, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines
6 University Malaya, Jalan Universiti, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia
7 Department of Psychiatry, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, University of Indonesia, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia
8 Lundbeck Singapore Pte. Ltd., 101 Thomson Road, Singapore

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 884
Abstract HTML Views: 345
PDF Downloads: 226
ePub Downloads: 155
Total Views/Downloads: 1610
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 595
Abstract HTML Views: 268
PDF Downloads: 181
ePub Downloads: 137
Total Views/Downloads: 1181

Creative Commons License
© 2017 Manit et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 110 Intavaroras Road, Muang, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand, Tel: +6653-94-5422-4, E-mail:



Cognitive dysfunction is a predominant symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), contributing to functional impairment.


The primary objective of this study was to assess and describe perceived cognitive dysfunction amongst Asian patients diagnosed with MDD. The secondary objective was to explore the associations between depression severity, perceived cognitive dysfunction and functional disability.


This was a multi-country, multi-centre, cross-sectional study. Adults with a current episode of MDD were recruited from 9 university/general hospital clinics in Asia. During a single study visit, psychiatrists assessed depression severity (Clinical Global Impression-Severity, CGI-S); patients completed questionnaires assessing depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items, PHQ-9), perceived cognitive dysfunction (Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-Depression, PDQ-D) and functional disability (Sheehan Disability Scale, SDS).


Patients (n=664), predominantly women (66.3%), were aged 46.5±12.5 years, lived in urban areas (81.3%) and were employed (84.6%). 51.5% of patients were having their first depressive episode; 86.7% were receiving treatment; 82.2% had a current episode duration >8 weeks. Patients had mild-to-moderate depression (CGI-S=3.3±1.0; PHQ-9=11.3±6.9). Patients reported perceived cognitive dysfunction (PDQ-D=22.6±16.2) and functional disability (SDS=11.3±7.9). PHQ-9, PDQ-D and SDS were moderately-to-highly correlated (PHQ-9 and SDS: r=0.72; PHQ-9 and PDQ-D: r=0.69; PDQ-D and SDS, r=0.63). ANCOVA showed that after controlling for patient-reported depression severity (PHQ-9), perceived cognitive dysfunction (PDQ-D) was significantly associated with functional disability (SDS) (p<0.001).


Asian patients with MDD reported perceived cognitive dysfunction. There is a need for physicians to evaluate cognitive dysfunction in the clinical setting in order to reach treatment goals, including functional recovery beyond remission of mood symptoms.

Keywords: Asia, Depression, Cognition, Functioning, Perceived cognitive dysfunction, Symptom.