Validation of the Italian Version of the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN): Some Considerations on its Screening Usefulness

Maria F Moro 1, Mauro G Carta 1, *, Mirra Pintus 1, Elisa Pintus 1, Riccardo Melis 1, Flavio Kapczinski 2, Eduard Vieta 3, Francesc Colom 3
1 Department of Public Health and Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Cagliari, Italy
2 Bipolar Disorders Program and Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Ramiro Barcelos 2350, 90035-000, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
3 Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

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© Moro et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Public Health and Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Cagliari, Italy; Tel: +39 35 499994; Fax: +070 6093498; E-mail:



Abnormalities in biological rhythms (BR) may have a role in the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorders (BD). The objective of this study is to validate the Italian version of the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), a useful tool in studying BR, and measure its accuracy in discriminating BD.


44 outpatients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BD and 38 controls balanced for sex and age were consecutively recruited. The discriminant validity of BRIAN for the screening of BD and its test re-test reliability in two evaluations were assessed.


BD patients scored 22.22±11.19 in BRIAN against 7.13±5.6 of the control group (P<0.0001). BRIAN showed a good accuracy to screen between BD non-BD at cutoff 16, a sensitivity was 68.2 and specificity was 92.5. The test-retest stability measured using Pearson’s coefficient found very high r values for each section and the total score, thus indicating a correlation at the two times of statistical significance in all measures. Cohen’s Kappa varied from 0.47 in the sociality section to 0.80 in the sleep section, with a total K mean of 0.65.


The results show that the Italian version of BRIAN has good discriminant validity in detecting BD from healthy controls and shows good test-retest reliability. The study suggests the possibility of developing mixed screening tools by introducing items on dysregulation of biological rhythms to the usual measures of mood.

Keywords: Biological rhythms, bipolar disorders, BRIAN, Italian screening, validation.